Creating a business plan is a crucial task for any business, and one which requires you to be thoughtful about the direction of your business, consider the goals most important to you, and how you will go about achieving them.
A solid business plan will give you the confidence that you will find success, and may even reveal some gaps and risks. In fact, studies show entrepreneurs who start with a written business plan are more successful than those who don’t.
Whether you’re creating a roadmap to follow as a new business owner, need a pitch to attract investors or a document to engage stakeholders, a business plan is a living document you’ll want to update regularly as your business, goals and circumstances evolve.
While some business owners consider writing a business plan an overwhelming step, it doesn’t have to be. Creating the best business plan ever is a matter of breaking it down into individual steps — and then taking them one at a time.
Seven steps to building your business plan.
The substance of your introductory section (beyond your cover page and table of contents) is the Executive Summary. The Executive Summary should identify what your business does, covering:
- Your industry and target market
- How you stand out from your competition
- Whether your business is a sole proprietorship, partnership or incorporated business
- The stage of your business — whether it is a start-up or already in operation
- Your team’s experience and credentials
- Your projected financial performance
While your Executive Summary has to work hard, it should be clear and to the point, grabbing the reader’s attention and compelling them to read more — a good rule of thumb is to keep this section to one page. While the Executive Summary is structurally the first section of your plan, many owners will write it last, since it’s a summary of everything else you’ve written about.
2. The Business Environment
This section sets out the history and summary of your business in detail, identifying what you’re selling and how you’re solving a problem or need in the market. If your business is already established, you’ll want to cover its path to this point — where you started and how you got here. If you’re starting a new business, be sure to include any pre-market research or testing you’ve conducted that speaks to the viability of your idea.
You will also want to highlight the industry trends and growth prospects, as well as how your business fits into the current environment. Identifying your competition and how you stand apart from them will also help you determine your position within the industry.
3. The Marketing Plan — Where you want to go and how you will get there
Your Marketing Plan explains how you’re going to get your customers to buy your products or services. Part of this exercise involves identifying your target market — the group of customers you want to sell to. It should also include:
- Your products, service and unique selling proposition. What are the features of your product or service and what makes it unique? How is it different from what your competitors offer?
- Your pricing strategy. Determining the price to charge can seem tricky – you want it to be competitive but still make a reasonable profit. By calculating your costs, estimating the benefits to customers and comparing your offering to others can help you come up with the price
- Your sales and delivery strategy. How will your product or service get to your customers? And how much will it cost? How will you manage your inventory and transaction processing?
- Advertising and promotion strategy. Here you’ll want to describe how you’re going to deliver your unique selling proposition to your prospective customers. Start by thinking about the message you want to deliver and the advertising and promotion tactics (website, social media, emails, radio, magazines) which will reach your audience most effectively. Be sure to prioritize your activities and budget for them accordingly.
The Operations section of your business plan describes what’s physically necessary for your business.
This section contains two main categories:
- Your stage of development: This should highlight what you’ve done to date to get the business operational, then follow up with an explanation of what still needs to be done.
- The production process: This lays out the details of your business’s day-to-day operations, including your hours of operation, any manufacturing details such as facility, equipment and material requirements, inventory, costs and more.
5. Financing and Cash Flow Planning
The Finance section is your opportunity to determine how strong your business is financially. It’s important to be very realistic about your expenses and projected income so you can properly assess your business’ financial health as early as possible.
If you’re running an existing business, your goal here is to populate three main financial statements:
- Your cash flow statement, which reflects how much money your business has at a particular point in time
- Your income statement, which shows your profit and loss for a period of time
- Your balance sheet, which is a financial snapshot of your business.
In order to do that you’ll need to calculate your expenses — both your one-time and ongoing operating costs — and your income.
If you haven’t started your business yet, you will really only be able to populate your expenses — but they are important to calculate now because they will reveal how much start-up financing you need to get your business up and running.
6. The Team
Great ideas need great teams behind them, so this section should describe your current team as well as anyone you might need to hire to round out your company. Be sure to talk about your own skills and strengths, as well as the others who make up your team with detailed management team profiles, the credentials of your Board of Advisors (if you have one) and the professional partners you have relationships with, such as lawyers, accountants, bankers and any consultants.
An overview of your Human Resources processes, which will address labour, compensation, training and other operational aspects of managing your people, can round out this section.
7. Risks and Conclusions
Every business comes with some risk — so it’s better to be prepared for risks now rather than be surprised by them later. In this section, include all the possible risks your business could face, such as the economy, your competition, the illness of a key team member or delayed receivables. You’ll then want to detail how you plan to minimize or address these risks so you’re ready to tackle them head-on.
In the Conclusions section you will restate your goals and objectives. If the purpose of your business plan is to get financing, you will want to clearly state the amount required and what it will be used for. As with your Executive Summary, your conclusion should be succinct, clear and leave a positive impression on the reader.
Keep in mind, your business plan is a living, breathing document that should be regularly revisited — regardless of whether you are a new owner or run an established business.
“Things change, the world changes — your business plan should change with it,” advises RBC Commercial Account Manager Jeffrey Heard. “It’s not a document to be written and filed away — adaptability is key to the success of any business, and your plan should be updated as you change course.”
You’ll want to review your plan to understand how your goals, priorities, competitive environment and operating model are coming together to deliver on your ambitions. And, as the more business planning and sales forecasting become part of your routine, the more prepared you will be to make strategic decisions to drive the business outcomes you’re striving for. The result is greater confidence and agility to take on new challenges and opportunities as they appear.
This article is intended as general information only and is not to be relied upon as constituting legal, financial or other professional advice. A professional advisor should be consulted regarding your specific situation. Information presented is believed to be factual and up-to-date but we do not guarantee its accuracy and it should not be regarded as a complete analysis of the subjects discussed. All expressions of opinion reflect the judgment of the authors as of the date of publication and are subject to change. No endorsement of any third parties or their advice, opinions, information, products or services is expressly given or implied by Royal Bank of Canada or any of its affiliates.